The following are NYS Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum Major Understandings to be addressed in the program:

The Living Environment

1.2d During respiration, cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food. The respiratory system supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide (gas exchange).

1.2f The circulatory system moves substances to and from cells, where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands.

7.2a In ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment.

7.2b The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in longterm gradual changes (ecological succession).

7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil.  Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth’s resources.

The Physical Setting

1.1d Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the Moon in orbit around the Earth.

1.1e Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as a day, a year, phases of the Moon, eclipses, tides, meteor showers, and comets.

2.1b As altitude increases, air pressure decreases.

2.1c The rock at Earth’s surface forms a nearly continuous shell around Earth called the lithosphere.

2.1d The majority of the lithosphere is covered by a relatively thin layer of water called the hydrosphere.

2.2i Weather describes the conditions of the atmosphere at a given location for a short period of time.

2.2j Climate is the characteristic weather that prevails from season to season and year to year.

2.2k The uneven heating of Earth’s surface is the cause of weather.

2.2l Air masses form when air remains nearly stationary over a large section of Earth’s surface and takes on the conditions of temperature and humidity from that location.  Weather conditions at a location are determined primarily by temperature, humidity, and pressure of air masses over that location.

2.2m Most local weather condition changes are caused by movement of air masses.

3.1d Gases have neither a determined shape nor a definite volume. Gases assume the shape and volume of a closed container.

3.1e A liquid has definite volume, but takes the shape of a container.

3.1f A solid has definite shape and volume. Particles resist a change in position.

3.1h Density can be described as the amount of matter that is in a given amount of space. If two objects have equal volume, but one has more mass, the one with more mass is denser.

3.1i Buoyancy is determined by comparative densities.

3.3a All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are far too small to see with a light microscope.

3.3b Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. The greater the temperature, the greater the motion.

4.2a Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature.

4.2d Most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled. Water is an exception, expanding when changing to ice.

4.4b Light passes through some materials, sometimes refracting in the process.  Materials absorb and reflect light, and may transmit light. To see an object, light from that object, emitted by or reflected from it, must enter the eye.

4.4c Vibrations in materials set up wave-like disturbances that spread away from the source.  Sound waves are an example. Vibrational waves move at different speeds in different materials. Sound cannot travel in a vacuum.

5.2d Friction is a force that opposes motion.

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